This section will cover the general history of Abkhazia, an autonomous republic of Georgia.


  • Abkhazia within the Russian Empire

    The Russian annexation of two major Georgian kingdoms between 1801 and 1810 facilitated the empire’s expansion far into the Caucasus region. During the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812, in 1810, a Russian force took hold of Suhum-kale and installed their protégé Sefer Bey (Georgi), who agreed to incorporate Abkhazia as a vassal principality within the Russian empire.

  • Abkhazia from 1917 to 1921

    The Bolshevik coup in October 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War forced the major national forces of South Caucasus – Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia – to unite into fragile federative structures. Abkhaz leaders created, on November 8, 1917, their own post-revolutionary body, Abkhaz People’s Council (APC), but Abkhazia became embroiled into a chaos of the civil unrest. It was torn between supporters of the short-lived Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus, a pro-Bolshevik faction, a pro-Turkish nobility, and a pro-Georgian Menshevik group.

  • The Ottoman rule

    In the 1570s, the Ottoman navy occupied the Georgian fort of Tskhumi on the Abkhazian coastline, turning it into the Turkish fortress of Suhum-Kale (hence, the modern name of the city of Sokhumi).

  • Medieval Abkhazia

    Reign of Queen Tamar was the peak of Georgia’s might in the whole history of the nation. In 1194-1204 Tamar’s armies crushed new Turkish invasions from the south-east and south and launched several successful campaigns into Turkish-controlled Southern Armenia.

  • The Prehistoric settlement in Abkhazia

    Lower Paleolithic hunting-gathering encampments formed the first known settlements on the territory of modern-day Abkhazia. The earliest examples have been unearthed at the sites of Iashkhtva, Gumista, Kelasuri, and Ochamchire.

  • History of Abkhazia
    This section will cover the general history of Abkhazia, an autonomous republic of Georgia. Numerous attempts have been made previously to write history of Abkhazia online, yet all of them lack serious use of scholarly sources of the international literature, especially if compared to the torrent of myths about this region, many of which enjoy the active support of politicised individuals from Russia and elsewhere. Political punditry and normative statements still prevail over detached scholarly analysis in the study of Abkhazian history. The editors of Abkhazeti will attempt to counter this trend and go beyond the tradition of falsification and politicizing of Abkhazian History.
    The text which is used in this section is based on numerous primary and secondary sources taken from the well know western scholars of Caucasian studies such as William Edward David Allen, David Marshal Lang, Sir John Oliver and Marjory Scott Wardrop, Cyril Toumanoff, Ronald Grigor Sunny, Svante E. Cornell, etc. The text also uses medieval Georgian and Armenian annals by various authors.
  • Genocide
  • Abkhazia in antiquity

    Along with the rest of Colchis, the territory of modern-day Abkhazia was conquered by Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus between c. 110 and 63 BC, and then taken by the Roman commander Pompey

  • The War in Abkhazia

    For more detailed account of the events, please see section: War in Abkhazia

  • Abkhazia within the Soviet Union

    Despite the 1920 treaty of non-aggression signed between Bolshevik Russia and Georgia, Soviet Russia’s 11th Red Army invaded Georgia on February 11 1921, and marched on Tbilisi. Almost simultaneously, 9th (Kuban) Army entered Abkhazia on February 19. Supported by the local pro-Bolshevik guerrillas, the Soviet troops took control of most of Abkhazia in a series of battles from February 23 to March 7, and proceeded into the neighbouring region of Mingrelia.

  • Post-war Abkhazia

    The economic situation in the republic after war was very hard and it was aggravated by the sanctions imposed in 1994 by the CIS. During the 1990s a lot of people of all ethnicities left Abkhazia mainly for Russia. Since 1997 Russia effectively dropped these sanctions which tremendously helped republic\'s economy.

On the Subject of Us

Tragedy in Abkhazia is not only our tragedy, this is one of the tragedies that occurred around the world as a chain of evil events.

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