Medieval Abkhazia

Reign of Queen Tamar was the peak of Georgia’s might in the whole history of the nation. In 1194-1204 Tamar’s armies crushed new Turkish invasions from the south-east and south and launched several successful campaigns into Turkish-controlled Southern Armenia.

The unification of the Georgian kingdoms

In 1008, the Bagrationi (Georgian Royal House) ruler Bagrat III of Georgia united the kingdoms of Abkhazia (Apkhazeti) and rest of Georgia into a single Georgian feudal state. The second half of the 11th century was marked by the disastrous invasion of the Seljuk Turks who by the end of 1040s succeeded in building a vast nomadic empire including most of the Central Asia and Iran. In 1071 Seljuk army destroyed the united Byzantine-Armenian and Georgian forces in the battle of Mantsikert, and by 1081, all of Armenia, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Syria and most of Georgia were conquered and devastated by the Seljuks.

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